ðŸŽ‰ Exercism Research is now launched. Help Exercism, help science and have some fun at research.exercism.io ðŸŽ‰

# nobsun's solution

## to Zipper in the Haskell Track

Published at Aug 02 2020 · 0 comments
Instructions
Test suite
Solution

#### Note:

This exercise has changed since this solution was written.

Creating a zipper for a binary tree.

Zippers are a purely functional way of navigating within a data structure and manipulating it. They essentially contain a data structure and a pointer into that data structure (called the focus).

For example given a rose tree (where each node contains a value and a list of child nodes) a zipper might support these operations:

• `from_tree` (get a zipper out of a rose tree, the focus is on the root node)
• `to_tree` (get the rose tree out of the zipper)
• `value` (get the value of the focus node)
• `prev` (move the focus to the previous child of the same parent, returns a new zipper)
• `next` (move the focus to the next child of the same parent, returns a new zipper)
• `up` (move the focus to the parent, returns a new zipper)
• `set_value` (set the value of the focus node, returns a new zipper)
• `insert_before` (insert a new subtree before the focus node, it becomes the `prev` of the focus node, returns a new zipper)
• `insert_after` (insert a new subtree after the focus node, it becomes the `next` of the focus node, returns a new zipper)
• `delete` (removes the focus node and all subtrees, focus moves to the `next` node if possible otherwise to the `prev` node if possible, otherwise to the parent node, returns a new zipper)

## Getting Started

For installation and learning resources, refer to the exercism help page.

## Running the tests

To run the test suite, execute the following command:

``````stack test
``````

#### If you get an error message like this...

``````No .cabal file found in directory
``````

You are probably running an old stack version and need to upgrade it.

#### Otherwise, if you get an error message like this...

``````No compiler found, expected minor version match with...
Try running "stack setup" to install the correct GHC...
``````

Just do as it says and it will download and install the correct compiler version:

``````stack setup
``````

## Running GHCi

If you want to play with your solution in GHCi, just run the command:

``````stack ghci
``````

## Feedback, Issues, Pull Requests

The exercism/haskell repository on GitHub is the home for all of the Haskell exercises.

If you have feedback about an exercise, or want to help implementing a new one, head over there and create an issue. We'll do our best to help you!

## Submitting Incomplete Solutions

It's possible to submit an incomplete solution so you can see how others have completed the exercise.

### Tests.hs

``````import Data.Maybe        (fromJust)
import Test.Hspec        (Spec, it, shouldBe)
import Test.Hspec.Runner (configFastFail, defaultConfig, hspecWith)

import Zipper
( BinTree(BT)
, fromTree
, left
, right
, setLeft
, setRight
, setValue
, toTree
, up
, value
)

main :: IO ()
main = hspecWith defaultConfig {configFastFail = True} specs

specs :: Spec
specs = do

let leaf v     = node v Nothing Nothing
node v l r = Just (BT v l r :: BinTree Int)
t1         = BT 1 (node 2 Nothing  \$ leaf 3) \$ leaf 4
t2         = BT 1 (node 5 Nothing  \$ leaf 3) \$ leaf 4
t3         = BT 1 (node 2 (leaf 5) \$ leaf 3) \$ leaf 4
t4         = BT 1 (leaf 2                  ) \$ leaf 4
t5         = BT 6 (leaf 7                  ) \$ leaf 8
t6         = BT 1 (node 2 Nothing  \$ leaf 3) \$ node 6 (leaf 7) (leaf 8)
t7         = BT 1 (node 2 Nothing  \$ leaf 5) \$ leaf 4

it "data is retained" \$
toTree (fromTree t1)
`shouldBe` t1

it "left, right and value" \$
(value . fromJust . right . fromJust . left . fromTree) t1
`shouldBe` 3

(left . fromJust . left . fromTree) t1
`shouldBe` Nothing

it "traversing up from top" \$
(up . fromTree) t1
`shouldBe` Nothing

it "left, right, and up" \$
(value . fromJust . right . fromJust . left . fromJust . up . fromJust . right . fromJust . up . fromJust . left . fromTree) t1
`shouldBe` 3

it "tree from deep focus" \$
(toTree . fromJust . right . fromJust . left . fromTree) t1
`shouldBe` t1

it "setValue" \$
(toTree . setValue 5 . fromJust . left . fromTree) t1
`shouldBe` t2

it "setValue after traversing up" \$
(toTree . setValue 5 . fromJust . up . fromJust . right . fromJust . left . fromTree) t1
`shouldBe` t2

it "setLeft with Just" \$
(toTree . setLeft (leaf 5) . fromJust . left . fromTree) t1
`shouldBe` t3

it "setRight with Nothing" \$
(toTree . setRight Nothing . fromJust . left . fromTree) t1
`shouldBe` t4

it "setRight with subtree" \$
(toTree . setRight (Just t5) . fromTree) t1
`shouldBe` t6

it "setValue on deep focus" \$
(toTree . setValue 5 . fromJust . right . fromJust . left . fromTree) t1
`shouldBe` t7

it "different paths to same zipper" \$
(right . fromJust . up . fromJust . left . fromTree) t1
`shouldBe` (right . fromTree) t1``````
``````{-# LANGUAGE DeriveDataTypeable #-}
module Zipper
( BinTree(BT)
, fromTree
, left
, right
, setLeft
, setRight
, setValue
, toTree
, up
, value
) where

import Data.Maybe

data BinTree a = BT { btValue :: a
, btLeft  :: Maybe (BinTree a)
, btRight :: Maybe (BinTree a)
} deriving (Eq, Show)

data Crumb a = LeftCrumb a (Maybe (BinTree a))
| RightCrumb a (Maybe (BinTree a)) deriving (Eq, Show)

type Breadcrumbs a = [Crumb a]
type Zipper a = (BinTree a, Breadcrumbs a)

fromTree :: BinTree a -> Zipper a
fromTree tree = (tree,[])

toTree :: Zipper a -> BinTree a
toTree zipper = case zipper of
(tree, []) -> tree
_          -> toTree (fromJust (up zipper))

value :: Zipper a -> a
value zipper = case zipper of
(BT x _ _, _) -> x

left :: Zipper a -> Maybe (Zipper a)
left zipper = case zipper of
(BT x l r,bs) -> maybe Nothing (\ t -> Just (t, LeftCrumb x r : bs)) l

right :: Zipper a -> Maybe (Zipper a)
right zipper = case zipper of
(BT x l r,bs) -> maybe Nothing (\ t -> Just (t, RightCrumb x l : bs)) r

up :: Zipper a -> Maybe (Zipper a)
up zipper = case zipper of
(t,[]) -> Nothing
(l,LeftCrumb a r:bs) -> Just (BT a (Just l) r, bs)
(r,RightCrumb a l:bs) -> Just (BT a l (Just r), bs)

setValue :: a -> Zipper a -> Zipper a
setValue x zipper = case zipper of
(BT _ l r, bs) -> (BT x l r, bs)

setLeft :: Maybe (BinTree a) -> Zipper a -> Zipper a
setLeft tree zipper = case zipper of
(BT x _ r, bs) -> (BT x tree r, bs)

setRight :: Maybe (BinTree a) -> Zipper a -> Zipper a
setRight tree zipper = case zipper of
(BT x l _, bs) -> (BT x l tree, bs)``````