Determine if a sentence is a pangram. A pangram (Greek: παν γράμμα, pan gramma, "every letter") is a sentence using every letter of the alphabet at least once. The best known English pangram is:
The quick brown fox jumps over the lazy dog.
The alphabet used consists of ASCII letters
z, inclusive, and is case
insensitive. Input will not contain non-ASCII symbols.
Sometimes it is necessary to raise an exception. When you do this, you should include a meaningful error message to indicate what the source of the error is. This makes your code more readable and helps significantly with debugging. Not every exercise will require you to raise an exception, but for those that do, the tests will only pass if you include a message.
To raise a message with an exception, just write it as an argument to the exception type. For example, instead of
raise Exception, you should write:
raise Exception("Meaningful message indicating the source of the error")
To run the tests, run the appropriate command below (why they are different):
Alternatively, you can tell Python to run the pytest module (allowing the same command to be used regardless of Python version):
python -m pytest pangram_test.py
-v: enable verbose output
-x: stop running tests on first failure
--ff: run failures from previous test before running other test cases
For other options, see
python -m pytest -h
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import unittest from pangram import is_pangram # Tests adapted from `problem-specifications//canonical-data.json` @ v1.4.0 class PangramTest(unittest.TestCase): def test_sentence_empty(self): self.assertIs(is_pangram(''), False) def test_recognizes_a_perfect_lower_case_pangram(self): self.assertIs(is_pangram('abcdefghijklmnopqrstuvwxyz'), True) def test_pangram_with_only_lower_case(self): self.assertIs( is_pangram('the quick brown fox jumps over the lazy dog'), True) def test_missing_character_x(self): self.assertIs( is_pangram('a quick movement of the enemy will ' 'jeopardize five gunboats'), False) def test_another_missing_character(self): self.assertIs(is_pangram('five boxing wizards jump quickly at it'), False) def test_pangram_with_underscores(self): self.assertIs( is_pangram('the_quick_brown_fox_jumps_over_the_lazy_dog'), True) def test_pangram_with_numbers(self): self.assertIs( is_pangram('the 1 quick brown fox jumps over the 2 lazy dogs'), True) def test_missing_letters_replaced_by_numbers(self): self.assertIs( is_pangram('7h3 qu1ck brown fox jumps ov3r 7h3 lazy dog'), False) def test_pangram_with_mixedcase_and_punctuation(self): self.assertIs( is_pangram('"Five quacking Zephyrs jolt my wax bed."'), True) def test_upper_and_lower_case_versions_of_the_same_character(self): self.assertIs( is_pangram('the quick brown fox jumped over the lazy FX'), False) if __name__ == '__main__': unittest.main()
ALPHABET = 'abcdefghijklmnopqrstuvwxyz ' def is_pangram(s): return set(list(s.lower())) >= set(ALPHABET);
A huge amount can be learned from reading other people’s code. This is why we wanted to give exercism users the option of making their solutions public.
Here are some questions to help you reflect on this solution and learn the most from it.