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spanierm's solution

to Forth in the Kotlin Track

Published at Apr 19 2019 · 0 comments
Instructions
Test suite
Solution

Note:

This exercise has changed since this solution was written.

Implement an evaluator for a very simple subset of Forth.

Forth is a stack-based programming language. Implement a very basic evaluator for a small subset of Forth.

Your evaluator has to support the following words:

  • +, -, *, / (integer arithmetic)
  • DUP, DROP, SWAP, OVER (stack manipulation)

Your evaluator also has to support defining new words using the customary syntax: : word-name definition ;.

To keep things simple the only data type you need to support is signed integers of at least 16 bits size.

You should use the following rules for the syntax: a number is a sequence of one or more (ASCII) digits, a word is a sequence of one or more letters, digits, symbols or punctuation that is not a number. (Forth probably uses slightly different rules, but this is close enough.)

Words are case-insensitive.

Submitting Incomplete Solutions

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ForthEvaluatorTest.kt

import org.junit.Before
import org.junit.Ignore
import org.junit.Rule
import org.junit.Test
import org.junit.rules.ExpectedException
import kotlin.test.assertEquals

class ForthEvaluatorTest {

    @Rule
    @JvmField
    var expectedException: ExpectedException = ExpectedException.none()

    private lateinit var forthEvaluator: ForthEvaluator

    @Before
    fun setUp() {
        forthEvaluator = ForthEvaluator()
    }

    @Ignore
    @Test
    fun testNumbersAreJustPushedOntoTheStack() {
        assertEquals(
                listOf(1, 2, 3, 4, 5),
                forthEvaluator.evaluateProgram(listOf("1 2 3 4 5")))
    }

    @Ignore
    @Test
    fun testTwoNumbersCanBeAdded() {
        assertEquals(
                listOf(3),
                forthEvaluator.evaluateProgram(listOf("1 2 +")))
    }

    @Ignore
    @Test
    fun testErrorIfAdditionAttemptedWithNothingOnTheStack() {
        expectedException.expect(IllegalArgumentException::class.java)
        expectedException.expectMessage("Addition requires that the stack contain at least 2 values")

        forthEvaluator.evaluateProgram(listOf("+"))
    }

    @Ignore
    @Test
    fun testErrorIfAdditionAttemptedWithOneNumberOnTheStack() {
        expectedException.expect(IllegalArgumentException::class.java)
        expectedException.expectMessage("Addition requires that the stack contain at least 2 values")

        forthEvaluator.evaluateProgram(listOf("1 +"))
    }

    @Ignore
    @Test
    fun testTwoNumbersCanBeSubtracted() {
        assertEquals(
                listOf(-1),
                forthEvaluator.evaluateProgram(listOf("3 4 -")))
    }

    @Ignore
    @Test
    fun testErrorIfSubtractionAttemptedWithNothingOnTheStack() {
        expectedException.expect(IllegalArgumentException::class.java)
        expectedException.expectMessage("Subtraction requires that the stack contain at least 2 values")

        forthEvaluator.evaluateProgram(listOf("-"))
    }

    @Ignore
    @Test
    fun testErrorIfSubtractionAttemptedWithOneNumberOnTheStack() {
        expectedException.expect(IllegalArgumentException::class.java)
        expectedException.expectMessage("Subtraction requires that the stack contain at least 2 values")

        forthEvaluator.evaluateProgram(listOf("1 -"))
    }

    @Ignore
    @Test
    fun testTwoNumbersCanBeMultiplied() {
        assertEquals(
                listOf(8),
                forthEvaluator.evaluateProgram(listOf("2 4 *")))
    }

    @Ignore
    @Test
    fun testErrorIfMultiplicationAttemptedWithNothingOnTheStack() {
        expectedException.expect(IllegalArgumentException::class.java)
        expectedException.expectMessage("Multiplication requires that the stack contain at least 2 values")

        forthEvaluator.evaluateProgram(listOf("*"))
    }

    @Ignore
    @Test
    fun testErrorIfMultiplicationAttemptedWithOneNumberOnTheStack() {
        expectedException.expect(IllegalArgumentException::class.java)
        expectedException.expectMessage("Multiplication requires that the stack contain at least 2 values")

        forthEvaluator.evaluateProgram(listOf("1 *"))
    }

    @Ignore
    @Test
    fun testTwoNumbersCanBeDivided() {
        assertEquals(
                listOf(4),
                forthEvaluator.evaluateProgram(listOf("12 3 /")))
    }

    @Ignore
    @Test
    fun testThatIntegerDivisionIsUsed() {
        assertEquals(
                listOf(2),
                forthEvaluator.evaluateProgram(listOf("8 3 /")))
    }

    @Ignore
    @Test
    fun testErrorIfDividingByZero() {
        expectedException.expect(IllegalArgumentException::class.java)
        expectedException.expectMessage("Division by 0 is not allowed")

        forthEvaluator.evaluateProgram(listOf("4 0 /"))
    }

    @Ignore
    @Test
    fun testErrorIfDivisionAttemptedWithNothingOnTheStack() {
        expectedException.expect(IllegalArgumentException::class.java)
        expectedException.expectMessage("Division requires that the stack contain at least 2 values")

        forthEvaluator.evaluateProgram(listOf("/"))
    }

    @Ignore
    @Test
    fun testErrorIfDivisionAttemptedWithOneNumberOnTheStack() {
        expectedException.expect(IllegalArgumentException::class.java)
        expectedException.expectMessage("Division requires that the stack contain at least 2 values")

        forthEvaluator.evaluateProgram(listOf("1 /"))
    }

    @Ignore
    @Test
    fun testCombinedAdditionAndSubtraction() {
        assertEquals(
                listOf(-1),
                forthEvaluator.evaluateProgram(listOf("1 2 + 4 -")))
    }

    @Ignore
    @Test
    fun testCombinedMultiplicationAndDivision() {
        assertEquals(
                listOf(2),
                forthEvaluator.evaluateProgram(listOf("2 4 * 3 /")))
    }

    @Ignore
    @Test
    fun testDupCopiesTheTopValueOnTheStack() {
        assertEquals(
                listOf(1, 1),
                forthEvaluator.evaluateProgram(listOf("1 DUP")))
    }

    @Ignore
    @Test
    fun testDupParsingIsCaseInsensitive() {
        assertEquals(
                listOf(1, 2, 2),
                forthEvaluator.evaluateProgram(listOf("1 2 Dup")))
    }

    @Ignore
    @Test
    fun testErrorIfDuplicatingAttemptedWithNothingOnTheStack() {
        expectedException.expect(IllegalArgumentException::class.java)
        expectedException.expectMessage("Duplicating requires that the stack contain at least 1 value")

        forthEvaluator.evaluateProgram(listOf("dup"))
    }

    @Ignore
    @Test
    fun testDropRemovesTheTopValueOnTheStackIfItIsTheOnlyOne() {
        assertEquals(
                emptyList(),
                forthEvaluator.evaluateProgram(listOf("1 drop")))
    }

    @Ignore
    @Test
    fun testDropRemovesTheTopValueOnTheStackIfItIsNotTheOnlyOne() {
        assertEquals(
                listOf(1),
                forthEvaluator.evaluateProgram(listOf("1 2 drop")))
    }

    @Ignore
    @Test
    fun testErrorIfDroppingAttemptedWithNothingOnTheStack() {
        expectedException.expect(IllegalArgumentException::class.java)
        expectedException.expectMessage("Dropping requires that the stack contain at least 1 value")

        forthEvaluator.evaluateProgram(listOf("drop"))
    }

    @Ignore
    @Test
    fun testSwapSwapsTheTopTwosValueOnTheStackIfTheyAreTheOnlyOnes() {
        assertEquals(
                listOf(2, 1),
                forthEvaluator.evaluateProgram(listOf("1 2 swap")))
    }

    @Ignore
    @Test
    fun testSwapSwapsTheTopTwosValueOnTheStackIfTheyAreNotTheOnlyOnes() {
        assertEquals(
                listOf(1, 3, 2),
                forthEvaluator.evaluateProgram(listOf("1 2 3 swap")))
    }

    @Ignore
    @Test
    fun testErrorIfSwappingAttemptedWithNothingOnTheStack() {
        expectedException.expect(IllegalArgumentException::class.java)
        expectedException.expectMessage("Swapping requires that the stack contain at least 2 values")

        forthEvaluator.evaluateProgram(listOf("swap"))
    }

    @Ignore
    @Test
    fun testErrorIfSwappingAttemptedWithOneNumberOnTheStack() {
        expectedException.expect(IllegalArgumentException::class.java)
        expectedException.expectMessage("Swapping requires that the stack contain at least 2 values")

        forthEvaluator.evaluateProgram(listOf("1 swap"))
    }

    @Ignore
    @Test
    fun testOverCopiesTheSecondElementIfThereAreOnlyTwo() {
        assertEquals(
                listOf(1, 2, 1),
                forthEvaluator.evaluateProgram(listOf("1 2 over")))
    }

    @Ignore
    @Test
    fun testOverCopiesTheSecondElementIfThereAreMoreThanTwo() {
        assertEquals(
                listOf(1, 2, 3, 2),
                forthEvaluator.evaluateProgram(listOf("1 2 3 over")))
    }

    @Ignore
    @Test
    fun testErrorIfOveringAttemptedWithNothingOnTheStack() {
        expectedException.expect(IllegalArgumentException::class.java)
        expectedException.expectMessage("Overing requires that the stack contain at least 2 values")

        forthEvaluator.evaluateProgram(listOf("over"))
    }

    @Ignore
    @Test
    fun testErrorIfOveringAttemptedWithOneNumberOnTheStack() {
        expectedException.expect(IllegalArgumentException::class.java)
        expectedException.expectMessage("Overing requires that the stack contain at least 2 values")

        forthEvaluator.evaluateProgram(listOf("1 over"))
    }

    @Ignore
    @Test
    fun testUserDefinedOperatorsCanConsistOfBuiltInOperators() {
        assertEquals(
                listOf(1, 1, 1),
                forthEvaluator.evaluateProgram(listOf(": dup-twice dup dup ;", "1 dup-twice")))
    }

    @Ignore
    @Test
    fun testUserDefinedOperatorsAreEvaluatedInTheCorrectOrder() {
        assertEquals(
                listOf(1, 2, 3),
                forthEvaluator.evaluateProgram(listOf(": countup 1 2 3 ;", "countup")))
    }

    @Ignore
    @Test
    fun testCanRedefineAUserDefinedOperator() {
        assertEquals(
                listOf(1, 1, 1),
                forthEvaluator.evaluateProgram(listOf(": foo dup ;", ": foo dup dup ;", "1 foo")))
    }

    @Ignore
    @Test
    fun testCanOverrideBuiltInWordOperators() {
        assertEquals(
                listOf(1, 1),
                forthEvaluator.evaluateProgram(listOf(": swap dup ;", "1 swap")))
    }

    @Ignore
    @Test
    fun testCanOverrideBuiltInArithmeticOperators() {
        assertEquals(
                listOf(12),
                forthEvaluator.evaluateProgram(listOf(": + * ;", "3 4 +")))
    }

    @Ignore
    @Test
    fun testCannotRedefineNumbers() {
        expectedException.expect(IllegalArgumentException::class.java)
        expectedException.expectMessage("Cannot redefine numbers")

        forthEvaluator.evaluateProgram(listOf(": 1 2 ;"))
    }

    @Ignore
    @Test
    fun testErrorIfEvaluatingAnUndefinedOperator() {
        expectedException.expect(IllegalArgumentException::class.java)
        expectedException.expectMessage("No definition available for operator \"foo\"")

        forthEvaluator.evaluateProgram(listOf("foo"))
    }

}
import java.util.*

class ForthEvaluator {
    companion object {
        private val CUSTOM_COMMAND_REGEX = "^: (\\S+) (.*) ;$".toRegex()
    }

    private val stack = Stack<Int>()
    private val customCommands = mutableMapOf<String, List<String>>()

    fun evaluateProgram(program: List<String>): List<Int> {
        program.map { command ->
            with(CUSTOM_COMMAND_REGEX.find(command)) {
                if (this != null) {
                    addCustomCommand(this)
                } else {
                    command.split(" ").forEach {
                        evaluate(it)
                    }
                }
            }
        }
        return stack
    }

    private fun addCustomCommand(matchResult: MatchResult) {
        val customCommand = matchResult.groups[1]!!.value.toUpperCase()
        val replacement = matchResult.groups[2]!!.value.toUpperCase()
        require(customCommand.toIntOrNull() == null) { "Cannot redefine numbers" }
        customCommands[customCommand] = replacement.split(" ")
    }

    private fun evaluate(command: String) {
        with(command.toUpperCase()) {
            when (this) {
                in customCommands -> {
                    customCommands[this]!!.forEach { evaluate(it) }
                }
                "+" -> evaluateBinaryCommand("Addition") { first: Int, second: Int ->
                    stack.push(first + second)
                }
                "-" -> evaluateBinaryCommand("Subtraction") { first: Int, second: Int ->
                    stack.push(first - second)
                }
                "*" -> evaluateBinaryCommand("Multiplication") { first: Int, second: Int ->
                    stack.push(first * second)
                }
                "/" -> evaluateBinaryCommand("Division") { first: Int, second: Int ->
                    require(second != 0) { "Division by 0 is not allowed" }
                    stack.push(first / second)
                }
                "SWAP" -> evaluateBinaryCommand("Swapping") { first: Int, second: Int ->
                    stack.push(second)
                    stack.push(first)
                }
                "OVER" -> evaluateBinaryCommand("Overing") { first: Int, second: Int ->
                    stack.push(first)
                    stack.push(second)
                    stack.push(first)
                }
                "DUP" -> evaluateUnaryCommand("Duplicating") { first: Int ->
                    stack.push(first)
                    stack.push(first)
                }
                "DROP" -> evaluateUnaryCommand("Dropping") { _: Int ->
                }
                else -> {
                    with(command.toIntOrNull()) {
                        require(this != null) { "No definition available for operator \"$command\"" }
                        stack.push(this)
                    }
                }
            }
        }
    }

    private fun evaluateUnaryCommand(humanReadableDescription: String, command: (Int) -> Any) {
        require(stack.isNotEmpty()) { "$humanReadableDescription requires that the stack contain at least 1 value" }
        val first = stack.pop()
        command(first)
    }

    private fun evaluateBinaryCommand(humanReadableDescription: String, command: (Int, Int) -> Any) {
        require(stack.size >= 2) { "$humanReadableDescription requires that the stack contain at least 2 values" }
        val second = stack.pop()
        val first = stack.pop()
        command(first, second)
    }
}

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