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# mbeltagy's solution

## to ISBN Verifier in the Julia Track

Published at Oct 28 2020 · 0 comments
Instructions
Test suite
Solution

#### Note:

This exercise has changed since this solution was written.

The ISBN-10 verification process is used to validate book identification numbers. These normally contain dashes and look like: `3-598-21508-8`

## ISBN

The ISBN-10 format is 9 digits (0 to 9) plus one check character (either a digit or an X only). In the case the check character is an X, this represents the value '10'. These may be communicated with or without hyphens, and can be checked for their validity by the following formula:

``````(x1 * 10 + x2 * 9 + x3 * 8 + x4 * 7 + x5 * 6 + x6 * 5 + x7 * 4 + x8 * 3 + x9 * 2 + x10 * 1) mod 11 == 0
``````

If the result is 0, then it is a valid ISBN-10, otherwise it is invalid.

## Example

Let's take the ISBN-10 `3-598-21508-8`. We plug it in to the formula, and get:

``````(3 * 10 + 5 * 9 + 9 * 8 + 8 * 7 + 2 * 6 + 1 * 5 + 5 * 4 + 0 * 3 + 8 * 2 + 8 * 1) mod 11 == 0
``````

Since the result is 0, this proves that our ISBN is valid.

Given a string the program should check if the provided string is a valid ISBN-10. Putting this into place requires some thinking about preprocessing/parsing of the string prior to calculating the check digit for the ISBN.

The program should be able to verify ISBN-10 both with and without separating dashes.

## Caveats

Converting from strings to numbers can be tricky in certain languages. Now, it's even trickier since the check digit of an ISBN-10 may be 'X' (representing '10'). For instance `3-598-21507-X` is a valid ISBN-10.

• Implement `show(io::IO, isbn::ISBN)` to print the ISBN in the standard format with dashes.

• Generate a valid ISBN-13 from the input ISBN-10 (and maybe verify it again with a derived verifier).

• Generate valid ISBN, maybe even from a given starting ISBN.

## Source

Converting a string into a number and some basic processing utilizing a relatable real world example. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/International_Standard_Book_Number#ISBN-10_check_digit_calculation

## Version compatibility

This exercise has been tested on Julia versions >=1.0.

## Submitting Incomplete Solutions

It's possible to submit an incomplete solution so you can see how others have completed the exercise.

### runtests.jl

``````using Test

include("isbn-verifier.jl")

@test ISBN <: AbstractString

@testset "valid ISBN numbers" begin
# ISBN number
@test isvalid(ISBN, "3-598-21508-8")
# ISBN number with a check digit of 10
@test isvalid(ISBN, "3-598-21507-X")
# ISBN without separating dashes
@test isvalid(ISBN, "3598215088")
# ISBN without separating dashes and X as check digit
@test isvalid(ISBN, "359821507X")
end

@testset "invalid ISBN numbers" begin
# invalid ISBN check digit
@test !isvalid(ISBN, "3-598-21508-9")
# check digit is a character other than X
@test !isvalid(ISBN, "3-598-21507-A")
# invalid character in ISBN
@test !isvalid(ISBN, "3-598-2K507-0")
# X is only valid as a check isdigit
@test !isvalid(ISBN, "3-598-2X507-9")
# ISBN without check digit and dashes
@test !isvalid(ISBN, "359821507")
# too long ISBN and no dashes
@test !isvalid(ISBN, "3598215078X")
# ISBN without check digit
@test !isvalid(ISBN, "3-598-21507")
# too long ISBN
@test !isvalid(ISBN, "3-598-21507-XX")
# check digit of X should not be used for 0
@test !isvalid(ISBN, "3-598-21515-X")
# empty ISBN
@test !isvalid(ISBN, "")
end

@testset "constructing valid ISBN numbers" begin
# ISBN number
@test string(isbn"3-598-21508-8") == "3598215088"
# ISBN number with a check digit of 10
@test string(isbn"3-598-21507-X") == "359821507X"
# ISBN without separating dashes
@test string(isbn"3598215088") == "3598215088"
# ISBN without separating dashes and X as check digit
@test string(isbn"359821507X") == "359821507X"
end

@testset "constructing invalid ISBN numbers" begin
# invalid ISBN check digit
@test_throws ArgumentError ISBN("3-598-21508-9")
# check digit is a character other than X
@test_throws ArgumentError ISBN("3-598-21507-A")
# invalid character in ISBN
@test_throws ArgumentError ISBN("3-598-2K507-0")
# X is only valid as a check isdigit
@test_throws ArgumentError ISBN("3-598-2X507-9")
# ISBN without check digit and dashes
@test_throws ArgumentError ISBN("359821507")
# too long ISBN and no dashes
@test_throws ArgumentError ISBN("3598215078X")
# ISBN without check digit
@test_throws ArgumentError ISBN("3-598-21507")
# too long ISBN
@test_throws ArgumentError ISBN("3-598-21507-XX")
# check digit of X should not be used for 0
@test_throws ArgumentError ISBN("3-598-21515-X")
# empty ISBN
@test_throws ArgumentError ISBN("")
end``````
``````struct ISBN <: AbstractString
elements::Vector{UInt8}
end

Base.show(isbn::ISBN) = String([Int[a] for a in isbn.elements])

Base.length(isbn::ISBN) = length(isbn.elements)

Base.iterate(isbn::ISBN) = iterate(isbn, 1)
function Base.iterate(isbn::ISBN, i::Integer)
if 0 < i <= length(isbn)
el = isbn.elements[i]
c = ifelse(el == 10, 'X', string(el)[1])
(c, i + 1)
else
nothing
end
end

function normalize_ISBN_string(s)
s_s = join(split(s, "-"))
m = match(r"([0-9]{9})([0-9]|X)\$", s_s)
end

function construct_ISBN_elements(m)
a = Vector{UInt8}()
append!(a, reverse(digits(parse(Int, m[1]))))
push!(a, m[2] == "X" ? 10 : parse(UInt8, m[2]))
end

function ISBN(s::AbstractString)
m = normalize_ISBN_string(s)
isnothing(m) && throw(ArgumentError("Invalid ISBN string format"))
a = construct_ISBN_elements(m)
check_valid_isbn_elements(a) || throw(ArgumentError("Failed checksum: ISBN is invalid"))
ISBN(a)
end

check_valid_isbn_elements(a) = sum([a[i] * (11 - i) for i = 1:length(a)]) % 11 == 0

function Base.isvalid(::Type{ISBN}, a)
m = normalize_ISBN_string(a)
isnothing(m) && return false
s = construct_ISBN_elements(m)
check_valid_isbn_elements(s)
end

macro isbn_str(s)
ISBN(s)
end``````